Anemia Megaloblástica, generalidades y su relación con el déficit neurológico

Contenido principal del artículo

María José Marín Castro

Resumen

Las anemias megaloblásticas agrupan una serie de desórdenes que se caracterizan por el cambio morfológico de los eritrocitos y su alteración en el desarrollo y maduración a nivel de la médula ósea.  Las causas de anemia megaloblástica son numerosas, pero en la mayoría de los casos es debido a deficiencia de folatos y vitamina B12. Esta última, se ve involucrada en múltiples procesos fisiológicos y metabólicos incluyendo el desarrollo del sistema nervioso central, la síntesis de neurotransmisores y la integridad celular. El déficit o ausencia de dichos compuestos genera anemia megaloblástica, una condición que deforma las células sanguíneas y causa diversos síntomas tales como fatiga, debilidad, adelgazamiento y en la primera infancia puede generar deficiencias intelectuales y trastornos motores persistentes. Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica con el objetivo hacer una revisión de la deficiencia de la vitamina B12 y folatos en relación con sus complicaciones a nivel neurológico.

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