El papel de las relaciones y la satisfacción vital en la percepción de la auto-imagen en una muestra de adolescentes mexicanos

Contenido principal del artículo

Ignacio Ramos Vidal

Resumen

Objetivo: el Trastorno Dismórfico Corporal es una preocupación excesiva por un defecto corporal inexistente o de escasa importancia. El propósito de esta investigación consiste en evaluar el efecto de diferentes tipos de relaciones con el grupo de pares y de la satisfacción con la vida en el desarrollo del Trastorno Dismórfico Corporal en población adolescente. Materiales y métodos: se emplearon técnicas de análisis estructural para evaluar las relaciones entre estudiantes en clase. Los indicadores de centralidad se calcularon analizando diferentes relaciones entre alumnos (n=139) y alumnas (n=274) en 11 salones de clase. Se llevó a cabo una regresión jerárquica, análisis de conglomerados, análisis multivariado y visualización de grafos. Resultados: una baja satisfacción con el cuerpo y con la familia son las principales variables que predicen el desarrollo de este tipo de trastornos somatoformes. Mediante análisis de clúster se identifican dos grupos. El primero presenta niveles medio-altos de satisfacción y un contexto relacional potencialmente conflictivo. El segundo muestra elevada satisfacción y un contexto de relaciones predominantemente positivo. El primer grupo exhibe mayores niveles de Trastorno Dismórfico Corporal en comparación con el segundo. Conclusiones: disponer de una red social positiva actúa como factor de protección ante la aparición de este tipo de trastornos. Otorgar alta importancia al físico y criticar a los demás por su apariencia se relaciona con niveles elevados de Trastorno Dismórfico Corporal.

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Sección
Artículos de Investigación
Biografía del autor/a

Ignacio Ramos Vidal, Departamento de Psicología Social (Universidad de Sevilla)Grupo de investigación CAVIDA (UPB-Montería)

Doctor en Psicología Social, Departamento de Psicología Social (Universidad de Sevilla, España) y miembro del grupo de investigación CAVIDA (UPB, Montería-Colombia).

Citas

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